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ItemContribution a l'étude des infections nosocomiales "service de chirurgie A" C.H.U Tlemcen( 2012)Les infections nosocomiales (fl%) posent un véritable problème de santé publique du fait de leur fréquence, leur gravité, et Idur cout socio-économique, notre travail réalisé dans le cadre de «Contribution à l'étude des infections nosocomiales au niveau chirurgie A » qui s'est déroulée en centre Hospitalo- Universitaire Tlemcen en 2012. Qui avait pour objectifs de déterminer la fréquence globale des infections nosocomiales dans le service de chirurgie A et d'évçquer les principaux facteurs de risque liés à ces infections et déterminer la fréquence des gerries responsables. Notre étude à porter sur 715 patients, le taux d'infections globale était de 5,5%, les infections du site opératoire étaient les plus fréquentes avec 76,67%, suivie des infections urinaires avec 20%, puis les infections sur cath éters et infections pulmonaires avec 3,33%. Les principaux germes isolés étaient Escherichia coli 36%, Staphylococcus aureus 24%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16%, Staphylococcus coagulase négative 12%, avec un taux de mortalité de 0,18%. Nosocomial infections (NI) pose a real public health problem because oftheir frequency, severity, and their socio-economic cost, our work done as part of "Contribution to the study of nosocomial infections in surgery A" which took place in Tlemcen University Hospital center in 2012. Which aimed to determine the oyerall incidence of nosocomial infections in surgical ward A and discuss the main risk Iùctorsassociated with these infections and determine the frequency of causative organisms. Our studyof7l5 patientsto wear, the overall infection rate was 5.5%, surgical site infections were most frequent with 76.67%, followed by urinary tract infections with 20%, and infections ofcatheters and pulmnary infections with 3.33%. The main pathogens isolated weiîe: Escherichia cou 36%, 24% Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16%, 1% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, witha mortality rate of0.18%.
ItemEVALUATION DES NIVEAUX D’EXPOSITION AUX PHTALATES CHEZ UNE POPULATION URBAINE( 2020-09-22)Abstract: Phthalates are considered endocrine disruptors. They are present everywhere in our daily life and their widespread use promotes human exposure by various means. As a result, they are intensively researched to try to identify their potential health effects. The objective of this study is to estimate the daily exposure to phthalates in the general population and to determine the levels of phthalates in water intended for human consumption.This is a cross-sectional, analytical descriptive study conducted on a random sample of participants residing in the cities of Oran and Tlemcen over a one-year period to assess the rates of six phthalate metabolites (Mono ethyl phthalate , mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono benzyl phthalate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phhtalate, mono-2- ethyl-5- hydroxyhexyl phthalate et mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate) in urine samples. Five phthalates were measured at the level of six brands of bottled water marketed in Algeria. The determination of phthalates and their metabolites was carried out by GC-SM after processing our samples by liquid liquid extraction.The analysis of two hundred and fourteen urine samples revealed the presence of at least one phthalate in each sample with an interval of 18% to 100%. Mono butyl phthalate was present in the samples of all participants. The highest rates were noted in women with a significant difference (p=0.021) this difference may be due to a source of exposure that is the use of cosmetic products. The daily intake of phthalates exceeded the tolerable daily intake in 6.5% and 13% of subjects for DEHP and DBP respectively and 21% of the population exceeded the danger index. Analysis of bottled water showed the presence of DEHP in all samples with an average of 2.39μg/l 0.96. An increase in phthalate concentrations, was noted over time and storage temperature. It was on the order of 1.4 times for DEHP and PBO, and 1.6 times for DiBP. This difference between the different storage conditions is very significant for DiBP and DEHP (p 0.000) and less significant for DBP (p0.048). The contribution to the contamination of our population with phthalates via bottled water ranges from 0.14% to 2.01% for DBP and from 0.07% to 1.66% for DEHP. Improving the public’s knowledge of the risk of phthalates is more than necessary to prevent its harmful effects on health throughout the life cycle. Keywords: phthalate, endocrine disruptors, phthalate metabolites, bottled water
ItemÉTUDE PHYTOCHIMIQUE BIOGUIDÉE DE PLANTES AROMATIQUES SAHARIENNES( 2017-09-30)Introduction : The search for new active molecules against Plasmodium falciparum in particular remains a major health challenge for academic pharmaceutical research, as the pharmaceutical industries are slow to develop new therapies, mainly for economic reasons. Plants have always played an important role in the discovery of major drugs such as quinine and artemisinin. It is estimated that only 1% of the known plant species have been the subject of pharmacological studies. So there are potentially many natural active ingredients to be discovered. Objectives : Our work aims mainly to valorize an original bioresource from the extreme south of Algeria by demonstrating the therapeutic potential of six species belonging to aromatic Asteraceae relatively abundant. The second objective consists to try - through a bioguided phytochemical investigation - to find from extracts of these same plant species, which bioactive metabolites can open new paths to the treatment of malaria. Materials and methods : The choice of these species is based on a chemotaxonomic criterion and the sampling concerned only the aerial parts of the plants ; the collection area being the center of the Ahaggar Cultural Park about forty kilometers north-east of Tamanrasset. After an in vitro biological screening for antiparasitic activity, evaluated on three strains of protozoa (Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei ssp. brucei), four crude extracts are retained (Artemisia campestris ssp. glutinosa, Artemisia judaica ssp. sahariensis, Pentzia monodiana and Pulicaria incisa) to be subjected for an original LC-MS technique for detecting metabolites able to link to the heminic part of hemoglobin. In parallel to this highly relevant process in the investigation of molecules that can prevent the degradation of the heme by Plasmodium, we have considered a UPLC-MSbased dereplication approach which, using a database of known natural products , can be both precise and especially fast in establishing a metabolite profile for a given extract. Preparative chromatography techniques (CPC, CC flash, HPLC) were also used for a more complete phytochemical study of Pentzia monodiana. Results : The interpretation of the NMR spectra of the compounds isolated from the P. monodiana extract confirmed the identity of these presumed metabolites during our dereplicationprocedure; this is the case of two methoxyflavones, 3'-O-methylupatorine and artemetin which showed increased affinity for the heme. Similarly, the extracts of the two subspecies of Artemisia gave very significant antiplasmodial activities, partly due to derivatives of the hydroxyacetophenone, of which a chemical structure was determined by NMR. Myrciaphenone A - a hydroxyacetophenone glucoside - is probably present in the extract of Pulicaria incisa; the latter’s antiparasitic activity could be assigned to this biomolecule. Conclusion : At the end of this study, we were able to highlight the pharmacological potential of the few aromatic Asteraceae present at the level of the Cultural Park of the Ahaggar through : - A demonstration of bioactive compounds known and mentioned in the scientific literature; some of them were reported for the first time for P. monodiana. The dereplication approach has proved to be particularly appropriate here. - An in vitro biological screening and in particular the heme fixation test, which gave us enough positive results. Key words : CPC, Heme-binding test, Natural products, NMR, Pentzia, Plasmodium, UPLC-MS.